東海學報(農學院)
第四十二卷 ........................九十年十月


畜 產
1. 以Lactobacillus bulgaricus 及Streptococcus thermophilus試製不同無脂乳固形 物酸酪乳之研究 --(王柏喬、施宗雄)
2. 不同乳酸菌應用於羊乳酸酪乳製造之研究(Ⅰ) --(葉金桂、施宗雄)
3. 產黏乳酸菌之生理特性 --(洪連欉、簡君祐)
4. 兩性黴素B抑制脂肪細胞分化 --(陳奕廷、林欣儀、陳珠亮)
5. 芳香烴基受體基因調控脂肪細胞的分化--(林欣儀、陳珠亮)
6. 切除尾脂腺對台灣雄土雞生長性狀與血清脂質及電解質濃度之影響 --(陳盈豪、曾秋隆、郭銘彰、王淑音、劉琳琳)

食品科技
1. 乳酸鈉對冷藏類似魚漿豬肉原料之脂肪氧化與微生物安定性之影響 --(鄭雅瑋、郭俊欽)
2. 利用冷藏或冷凍surimi-like豬肉原料製成kamaboko-like 豬肉製品組成、流變性及 官能特性 --(鄭雅瑋、郭俊欽)

食品管理
1. 電腦模擬運用田口方法於餐盒食品工廠產能最佳化之研究 --(陳景榮、蕭正安)
2. 中國大陸上市食品公司營運績效之研究 --(陳佩綺、黃秋香)

景觀設計
1. 國中生對展示設施偏好程度之研究-以科博館生命科學廳為例 --(蔡淑惠、鍾溫凊、吳忠宏)
2. 台灣南部恆春半島的植群集分析與植被帶區劃之歸屬 --(賴明洲、簡慶德、薛怡珍、曾家琳)
3. 由景觀生態學觀點探討都市公園生物多樣性-以台北市大安森林公園為例 --(王小璘、涂芳美)
4. 機關間土地經營管理衝突之研究-以塔塔加地區為例 --(鍾溫凊、葉文玉)
5. 樹群天際線對景觀美質影響之研究-以小葉南洋杉為例 --(章錦瑜、詹世光)

 

 

 

 

Tunghai Journal(College of Agriculture)

Volume 42------October 2001

Contents


Animal Science
1. Studies of Using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus on the Production of Different Milk Solid-not-fat Content Yogurt --(Po-Chiao Wang and Chung-Hsung Shih)
2. Study of Different Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Production of Goat Milk Yogurt --(Chin-Kuei Yeh and Chung-Hsung Shih)
3. The Characteristics of Exopolysaccharide(EPS)- producing Lactic Acid Bacteria --(Lien-Tsung Hung and Jun-You Chien)
4. Amphotericin B Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation --(Yi-Tien Chen , Hsing-Yi Lin and Chu-Liang Chen)
5. Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Gene and 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation --(Hsing-Yi Lin and Chu-Liang Chen)
6. The Effects of Uropygial Gland Removal on the Growth Performance, Serum Lipid and Electrolyte Concentration of Male Taiwan Country chicken --(Yieng-How Chen , Chau-Loong Tsang , Ming-Jung Kou , Shu-Yin Wang and Lin-Lin Lu)

Food Technology
1. Lipid Oxidation and Microbial Stability of Fresh Surimi-like Pork Material as Affected by Sodium Lactate --(Ya-Wei Cheng and Chun-Chin Kuo)
2. Composition, Rheological and Sensory Properties of Kamaboko-like Pork Products Prepared from Fresh or Frozen Surimi-like Pork Material --(Ya-Wei Cheng and Chun-Chin Kuo)

Food Management
1. Using the Taguchi Paradigm in Simulation Experiment for Optimum Lunch-box Manufacturing System Design --(Jing-Jung Chen and Cheng-an Hsiao)
2. A Sudy for the Performance of Mainland Listed Food Companies --(Pei-Chi Chen and Huang Qiu Xiang)

Landscape Architecture
1. A Study on the Preference of Exhibiting Facilities at the Life Science Hall, National Museum of Natural Science: The Viewpoint from Junior High School Students --(Shu-Hui Tsai , Win-Jing Chung and Homer Chung-Hung Wu )
2. Biocoenosis Assemblage Analysis and Vegetation Zonation of Hengchun Peninsula, Southern Taiwan --(Ming-Jou Lai , Chin-Te Chien , I-Chen Hsueh and Chia-Lin Tseng)
3. The Study on Urban Parks Biodiversity via Landscape Ecological Point of View- A Case Study of Da-An Forest in Taipei City --(Hsiao-Lin Wang and Fang-Mei Tu)
4. A Study on the Confilicts of Agencies Land Management-The Case of the Ta-Ta-Chia Area --(Win-Jing Chung and Wen-Yu Yeh )
5. The Influence of Mass Planting Skyline on Scenic Beauty-Araucaria Heterophylla as an Example. --(Chin-Yu Chang and Shih-Kuang Chan)

 

以Lactobacillus bulgaricus及Streptococcus thermophilus試製不同無脂乳固形物酸酪乳之研究

王柏喬 施宗雄

東海大學畜產學系

(收件日期:90415日;接受日期:9067日)

摘  要

  本試驗旨在探討無脂乳固形物對酸酪乳物化特性影響。混合菌元為Lactobacillus bulgaricus CCRC 14009Streptococcus thermophilus CCRC 11847,在8%、12%、16%三種無脂乳固形物下進行試驗,在42℃、48小時培養結果如下:12 無脂乳固形物於培養第24小時有最高菌數,無脂乳固形物越高,滴定酸度值、乳糖及半乳糖殘留量越高,而pH值越低、蔗糖殘留量越少;無脂乳固形物對生長速率有很大的影響;乳糖及蔗糖含量皆隨培養時間增加而減少,半乳糖則增加;產生之有機酸,以乳酸含量最高,丁酸次之;黏度及破裂應力在培養12小時內有增加趨勢,且隨無脂乳固形物增高而增大。無脂乳固形物越高,亮度值、黃色值越大、綠色值越小,保水力亦越大。保水力在培養第24小時到達高峰而後遞減;糖度在培養6小時內降低最多,培養24小時後而達平穩。

關鍵詞:酸酪乳、無脂乳固形物、物化特性

 

 

 

 

Studies of Using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus on the Pproduction of Different Milk Solid-not-fat Content Yogurt

 

Po-Chiao Wang and Chung-Hsung Shih

Dept. of Animal Science, Tunghai University

Date ReceivedApril 25, 2001Date AcceptedJune 7, 2001

Abstract

  The purpose of this experiment is to study the physical-chemical characteristics of using Lactobacillus bulgaricus CCRC 14009 and Streptococcus thermophilus on CCRC 12257 on the production of Different Milk Solid-Not-Fat Content Yogurt.

  The grow-up tests of starters were performed in three levels of 8%, 12%, and 16% milk solid-not- fat and evaluated the process of fermentation as basic condition. The starters were incubated at 42oC during 48 hours. 12% milk solid-not-fat had the highest lactic acid bacteria count at 24th hours.

  The more milk solid-not-fat, the more titrable acidity, lactose and galactose residues and L(+) form lactic acid, the less pH value and sucrose residue. Milk solid-not- fat had a great influence on growth rate. Viscosity and breaking test increased with milk solid-not fat within 12 hours. Lactose and sucrose content were decreased with incubation time but galactose content was increased. The amounts organic acid produced most was lactic acid and butyric acid was the second. The more milk solid-not- fat, the higher L-value, b-value, water holding capacity, the less a-value. The water holding capacity increased within 24 hours. Brix degree decreased mainly within 6 hours, stationary at 24 hours.

Key wordsYogurt, Milk solid-non-fat, Physical-chemical characteristics


不同乳酸菌應用於羊乳酸酪乳製造之研究[1]

葉金桂 施宗雄
東海大學畜產學系

(收件日期:90516日;接受日期:90612

摘  要

  本研究旨在探討於羊乳中分別接種Lactobacillus bulgaricusCCRC 14009)、Streptococcus thermophilusCCRC 12257)、L. acidophilusCCRC 10695)、Bifidobacterium bifidumCCRC 11844)、B. longumCCRC 11847)為菌元調製成酸酪乳(yogurt),分別測定其理化學性狀和生物學之變化並探討將來利用之可行性。試驗為不同菌元之生長試驗,採用單一或混合菌元接種3%(V/V)於滅菌羊乳中,測定發酵過程中之菌數、酸度、糖類及有機酸的變化以做為其他階段之基本發酵條件。試驗結果顯示:接種單株菌中以L. bulgaricus 於第6小時最早達到最高菌數,混合菌元則以 S. thermophilus L. bulgaricus混合接種於第6小時最早達到最高菌數,所有菌元平穩期可維持14小時左右;菌元分解乳糖與產酸能力方面,單株菌元以L. bulgaricus最強(P0.05),混合菌元則以S. thermophilus L. bulgaricus 組較強;L(+)型乳酸產生量,單株菌以 L. bulgaricus S. thermophilus 最高(P0.05),混合菌元則以 S. thermophilus L. bulgaricus 混合組顯著較高(P0.05);黏度方面,混合菌元可改善單一菌元不佳之問題。

關鍵詞乳酸菌、羊乳酸酪乳

 

 

Study of Different Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Production of Goat Milk Yogurt

Chin-Kuei Yeh and Chung-Hsung Shih

Dept. of Animal Science, Tunghai University

Date ReceivedMay 16, 2001Date AcceptedJune 12, 2001

Abstract

  Five strains of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus (CCRC 14009)Straptococcus thermophilus (CCRC 10695)B. bifidum (CCRC 11844)and B. longum (CCRC 11847) were used as starter culture on the manufacturing of goat milk yogurt. In experiment I, the grown-up test of single or mixed starters was performed for testing of variation of the numbers of lactic acid bacteriaTA%carbohydrate and organic acid in the process of fermentation as basic condition. The result as followsIn single starter, L. bulgaricus firstly reached the stationary phase within six hours. In mixed starters, S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus (1:1), was early reached the stationary phase within six hours. The stationary phase can keep going for about 14 hours. In single starter, L. bulgaricus had strongest ability in lactose hydrolysis and lactic acid forming (P0.05). In mixed starters, S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus had strongest ability in lactose hydrolysis and lactic acid forming (P0.05). The maximum production of L(+) lactic acid was found in the mixture L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus (P0.05) at the mix ratio of 1:1, the average value of lactic acid is 1.42 (g/dl) during the periods of fermentation. In the single starter, L. bulgaricus produced maximum L(+) lactic acid (P0.05). The L. bulgaricus has the better performance of viscosity in the single starter treatment, and the mixed starter can improve the viscosity fermented than single starter.

Key wordsLactic acid bacteria, Goat milk yogurt


產黏乳酸菌之生理特性

洪連欉 簡君祐

東海大學畜產學系

(收件日期:9057日;接受日期:90529)

摘  要

  本試驗之目的旨在於探討篩選之四株產黏乳酸菌〔ExopolysaccharideEPS-producing lactic acid bacteriaLactobacillus bulgaricus B2EStreptococcus thermophilus A1A2〕之生理特性,以利作為日後製造黏質酸酪乳(Ropy yogurt)之應用。將四株產黏乳酸菌接種於10 SNF脫脂乳中分別以27, 32, 3742℃培養30小時,分析其pH值、滴定酸度、黏絲性程度(Thread forming property)、黏度及乳酸菌數等。試驗結果顯示,於培養期間以球菌A1A2株之pH值明顯低於B2E株,而滴定酸度明顯高於B2E株;所以,球菌之篩選菌株A1A2之產酸能力高於桿菌之篩選菌株B2EA1A2菌株之黏絲性程度明顯高於B2E菌株,且以32℃組明顯高於其他各組。於42℃之黏度,球菌A1株之2447 cp和球菌A2株之2363 cp高於其他組;27℃之黏度,桿菌B2株之573 cp和桿菌E株之580 cp低於其他各組。乳酸菌數以32℃,球菌A1A2株之9.06 Log CFU/ml高於其他組,而37℃之乳酸菌數, 桿菌E株之7.21 Log CFU/ml低於其他組。

關鍵詞:產黏乳酸菌、黏絲性程度、黏度

 

The Characteristics of Exopolysaccharide
(EPS) - Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria

Lien-Tsung Hung and Jun-You Chien

Department of Animal Science, Tunghai University, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Date ReceviedMay 7, 2001Date AcceptedMay 29, 2001

Abstract

  This experiment was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of exopolysaccharide (EPS) -producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from several dairy fermented products by our laboratory (Lactobacillus bulgaricus B2 and E, Streptococcus thermophilus A1 and A2) for application in manufacturing ropy yogurt. Inoculating four strains of isolated EPS-producing lactic acid bacteria in 10% SNF skimmilk at 27, 32, 37 and 42 incubating 30 hours, then determining the pH value, titratable acidity, thread forming property, viscosity and lactic acid bacterial counts. The results showed the pH value of A1 and A2 strains were markedly lower than B2 and E strains, and the titratable acidity were markedly higher than B2 and E strains. So that lactic acid-producing abilities of A1 and A2 strains were higher than B2 and E strains. The level of thread forming property of A1 and A2 strains were higher than B2 and E strains, and the 32 set was markedly higher than other sets. The viscosity of A1 and A2 strains at 42 were higher than others (2447 and 2363 cp, respectively), and B2 and E strains at 27 were lower others (573 and 580 cp, respectively). At last, the lactic acid bacterial counts of A1 and A2 strains at 32, 9.06 Log CFU/ml were higher than others; E strain at 37, 7.21 Log CFU/ml was lower than others.

Key wordsExoplysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria, Thread forming property, Viscosity

 


兩性黴素B抑制脂肪細胞分化

陳奕廷 林欣儀 陳珠亮

東海大學畜產學系

(收件日期90430日;接受日期90529日)

摘  要

  本研究的目的在於探討兩性黴素B抑制脂肪細胞分化的機制。使用3T3-L1前脂肪細胞為試驗材料,在此種前脂肪細胞的分化培養過程中,添加1.4μg/ml的兩性黴素B,由oil Red-O脂質染色,發現可以非常明顯地降低脂肪堆積。同時北方點墨法實驗結果顯示,在分化過程中扮演重要角色的過氧小體增生活化受體(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ;PPARγ)之表現量亦明顯地受抑制,反應脂肪堆積降低的程度。我們進一步發現,兩性黴素B抑制效果的作用時間與PPARγ表現開始增加的時間相吻合,約為分化的第一至二天。這些結果顯示,兩性黴素B可能抑制PPARγ的作用,進而減少脂肪細胞的分化,以致脂肪堆積的降低。

關鍵詞:脂肪細胞、分化、兩性黴素B、過氧小體增生活化受體

 

 

Amphotericin B Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation

Yi-Tien Chen, Hsing-Yi Lin, and Chu-Liang Chen

Department of Animal Science, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan

Date ReceivedApril 30, 2001Date AcceptedMay 29, 2001

Abstract

  The aim of this study is to investigate the possible mechanisms of amphotericin B inhibition on adipocyte differentiation using the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte culture model system. From the dose response experiments, we observed that the addition of 1.4 ug/ml amphotericin B during differentiation was able to inhibit fat accumulation as estimated by the oil Red-O staining technique. The mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ(PPARγ), which is critical for adipocyte differentiation, dropped dramatically in the presence of amphotericin B. As shown by the northern blot analysis, the decrease of PPARγmRNA levels correlated with the decrease of fat accumulation. Furthermore, results of the time course study indicated that the time of PPARγexpression dropped coincided with the time of inhibitory effect of amphotericin B was observed, i.e. 1 to 2 days after the induction of differentiation. Overall, these results suggest that amphotericin B inhibits fat accumulation through a signaling pathway of decreasing PPARγ level during adipocyte differentiation.

Key wordsAdipocytes, Differentiation, Amphotericin B, PPARγ

 

 

 

芳香烴基受體基因調控脂肪細胞的分化

林欣儀 陳珠亮

東海大學畜產學系

(收件日期90430日;接受日期90525日)

摘  要

  脂肪細胞的分化受不同基因的表現及彼此間之作用所調控。本報告以3T3-L1前脂肪細胞株為試驗材料,探討芳香烴基受體(AhR)基因與脂肪細胞分化的關係及其在此過程中可能扮演的角色。利用西方點墨法,發現AhR蛋白質的表現量,在脂肪細胞進行分化的最初兩天,即降至無法偵測的程度。設計不同的培養條件,藉由分析分化標的基因的表現和細胞內脂肪堆積的情形,來判別細胞分化的程度,我們進一步發現,AhR蛋白質表現的量與細胞分化程度呈明顯正相關。再者,我們利用反義去氧核{酸配合基因轉殖技術,改變AhR基因的表現,發現細胞分化受抑制。綜合上述觀察,說明了AhR基因參與調控脂肪細胞分化的可能性。

關鍵語:脂肪細胞、分化、芳香烴基受體

  

Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Gene and 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation

Hsing-Yi Lin and Chu-Liang Chen

Department of Animal Science, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan

Date ReceivedApril 30, 2001Date AcceptedMay 25, 2001

Abstract

  Preadipocyte differentiation is driven by the expression and activation of many genes. We have been particularly interested in the roles of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene in adipocyte differentiation. In the mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line, the amount of AhR protein decreased dramatically to undetectable levels within the first two days of cell differentiation as shown by immunobloting. Under different induction conditions for adipocyte differentiation, we found that levels of AhR gene expression correlated with the degrees of differentiation. To investigate whether the AhR gene is involved in regulating preadipocyte differentiation, we tried to control the expression of AhR gene to see how it influences preadipocyte differentiation. Preadipocyte differentiation appeared to be inhibited, when 3T3-L1 cells were transfected with an AhR antisense oligonucleotide. Overall, expression of the AhR protein apparently is involved in adipocyt differentiation.

Key wordsAdipocytes, Differentiation, AhR

 


切除尾脂腺對台灣雄土雞生長性狀血清脂質及電解質濃度之影響

陳盈豪* 曾秋隆** 郭銘彰** 王淑音*** 劉琳琳*

*東海大學畜產學系

**國立中興大學獸醫學系

***中國文化大學畜產學系

(收件日期:90510日;接受日期:906 15 日)

摘  要

  本試驗之目的係在探討切除尾脂腺對台灣雄土雞生長性狀、血清脂質及電解質濃度之影響。選取1208週齡且體重相近之小公雞,逢機分配於假手術(SHAM)、切除左尾脂腺(LUGR)、切除右尾脂腺(RUGR)與切除左右尾脂腺(BUGR)等4個處理組。試驗期為8週,飼料與水任食。每兩週稱量體重與飼料採食量,在1216週齡採血分析血清脂質及電解質濃度,試驗結束時每處理組屠宰8隻雞以測量屠體性狀。試驗結果顯示:在812週齡隻日增重,則以BUGR組者最佳(P0.05)。切除尾脂腺使雞隻肝臟增大。隻日採食量、飼料效率、睪丸與腹脂重量及屠宰率在各處理組間無顯著差異(P0.05)。在12週齡SHAM組之雞隻有最高的血清鈉離子濃度(P0.05),但氯離子濃度最低(P0.05)。在16週齡時BUGR組的血清氯離子濃度最低(P0.05)。在1216週齡的血清鉀、鈣、磷、鎂離子濃度在各處理組間皆無顯著差異(P0.05)。16週齡,BUGR組的血清三酸甘油酯濃度顯著高於LUGRRUGR處理組(P0.05)。

關鍵詞:尾脂腺、生長性狀、血清脂質、電解質、台灣土雞

 

 

 

The Effects of Uropygial Gland Removal on the Growth Performance, Serum Lipid and Electrolyte Concentration of Male Taiwan Country Chicken

Yieng-How Chen*, Chau-Loong Tsang**, Ming-Jung Kou**,
Shu-Yin Wang*** and Lin-Lin Lu*

*Depart. of Animal Science, Tunghai University

**Depart. of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University

*** Depart. of Animal Science, Chinese Culture University

Date ReceivedMay 10, 2001Date AcceptedJun. 15, 2001

Abstract

  The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of uropygial gland removal on the growth performance, serum lipid and electrolyte concentration in male Taiwan country chicken. One hundred and twenty 8-wk-old cockerels with similar body weight were randomly were divided into four treatments: sham (SHAM), left uropygial gland removal (LUGR), right uropygial gland removal (RUGR)and both side uropygial gland removal (BUGR). Each treatment contains 15 birds and the experiment duplicated. Experiment lasted for 8 weeks, water and feed were ad libitum. Body weights, feed efficiency were measured every two weeks. At 12 and 16wk of age, Sera sample were analyzed for lipid and electrolyte concentration. At the end of experiment, eight birds from each treatment were sacrificed to examine the carcass traits. The results of experiment indicated that the cockerel in BUGR had largest average daily weight gain from 8 to 12 wk of age (P0.05). There were no significant differences in feed consumption, feed efficiency, weight of abdominal fat, testes and dressing percentage among treatments (P0.05). The cockerel in SHAM had the highest serum sodium, but had the lowest serum chloride concentration at 12 wk of age (P0.05). The cockerel in BUGR had the lowest serum chloride concentration at 16 wk of age (P0.05). There were no significant differences in serum potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium concentrations among treatments (P0.05) at both 12 and 16 wk of age. The cockerel in BUGR had higher serum triglyceride concentration than that of LUGR and RUGR at 16 wk of age (P0.05).

Key words Uropygial gland, Growth performance, Serum lipid, Serum electrolyte, Taiwan country chicken

 

 


乳酸鈉對冷藏類似魚漿豬肉原料之脂肪氧化與微生物安定性之影響

鄭雅瑋 郭俊欽
東海大學食品科學系

(收件日期:90416日;接受日期:9057日)

摘  要

  本實驗以豬肉原料,經絞碎、水洗、過濾、脫水及細切過程以製造surimi-like豬肉原料。在此原料中添加乳酸鈉(0, 1.53.0%)並冷藏(0℃)7天以探討其組成及貯藏安定性。Surimi-like豬肉原料之蛋白質、脂肪、灰分及總鐵含量較豬肉低,但水分含量則較高。Surimi-like豬肉原料所含C16:1C18:1脂肪酸之百分比較豬肉低,但C180C182脂肪酸之百分比則較高。Surimi-like 豬肉原料之顏色較豬肉亮(L值較高),但較不紅(a值較低)。乳酸鈉可降低surimi-like豬肉原料之pH值、水活性及TBA值,同時可抑制乳酸菌及厭氧菌的生長。添加1.53.0 乳酸鈉可使surimi-like豬肉原料之保存期限達7天以上。

關鍵詞:類似魚漿豬肉原料脂肪氧化乳酸鈉微生物安定性

 

Lipid Oxidation and Microbial Stability of Fresh Surimi-like Pork Material as Affected by Sodium Lactate

Ya-Wei Cheng and Chun-Chin Kuo

Department of Food Science, Tunghai University Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Date ReceivedApril 16, 2001Date AcceptedMay 7, 2001

Abstract

  Pork was chopped, washed, screened and dehydrated to make surimi-like pork material. Surimi-like pork material was added with sodium lactate (01.5 and 3%) and chilled at 0 for 7 days. The composition and storage stability of the surimi-like pork material were investigated. The surimi-like pork material contained less amount of protein, fat, ash and total iron, but higher amount of moisture than the starting pork material. Fatty acids (%) of C16:0 and C18: 1 in the surimi-like pork material decreased, but C18:0 and C18:2 fatty acids increased when compared to those in the pork. The surimi-like pork material was lighter (higher L value) and had less red color (lower a value) than the pork. Sodium lactate decreased the pH, water activity and TBA value of the surimi-like pork material, and inhibited the growth of lactic acid bacteria and anaerobic bacteria in these products. Addition of sodium lactate (1.5-3.0%) in the surimi-like pork material provided a sound material with a shelf-life of 7 days.

Key wordsSurimi-like pork material, Lipid oxidation, Sodium lactate, Microbial stability

 

 


利用冷藏或冷凍surimi-like豬肉原料製成kamaboko-like豬肉製品之組成、流變性及官能特性

鄭雅瑋 郭俊欽
東海大學食品科學系

(收件日期:90511日;接受日期:9063日)

摘  要

  本實驗利用冷藏或冷凍surimi-like豬肉原料製造kamaboko-like豬肉製品,產品經真空包裝並於0℃下貯藏010203040天。由冷藏或冷凍surimi-like豬肉原料所製kamaboko-like產品之水分、蛋白質、脂肪、灰分及脂肪酸並無區別。而由冷凍原料所製產品之剪力值,凝膠強度及引張強度皆較由冷藏原料所製產品高,但二組之曲折試驗結果及官能評分(風味及接受性)並無區別。貯藏期間所有產品之亮度值及紅色度值增加,但黃色度值減少;二組產品之TBA值沒有區別。

關鍵詞:豬肉流變性官能評估魚糕魚漿

 

 

                                                                   

Composition, Rheological and Sensory Properties of Kamaboko-like Pork Products Prepared from Fresh or Frozen Surimi-like Pork Material

Ya-Wei Cheng and Chun-Chin Kuo

Department of Food Science, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Date ReceivedMay 16, 2001Date AcceptedJune 3, 2001

Abstract

  Fresh or frozen surimi-like pork material was used to manufacture the kamaboko-like pork products. These products were vacuum-packed and stored at 0°C for 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. The differences in moisture, protein, fat, ash and fatty acid contents between these two treatments were not different. The kamaboko-like products made from frozen surimi-like material had higher shear values, gel strength and tensile strength values; however, the double-fold test results and the sensory scores (flavor and acceptability) of these two treatments were not different. During storage, the L and a values of all kamaboko-like products increased, but b values decreased; and the TBA numbers of these two treatments were not different.

Key wordsPork, Rheology, Sensory evaluation, Kamaboko, Surimi

 

 


電腦模擬運用田口方法於餐盒食品工廠產能最佳化之研究

陳景榮 蕭正安

東海大學食品科學系

(收件日期:90425日;接受日期:90530日)

摘  要

  本研究主要是將田口方法應用於生產線產能的改善。首先引用經濟學規模報酬遞減的理論來支持將田口氏所提品質損失函數為二次式的觀念運用於生產線產能改善之作法;再將田口方法中實驗設計最佳化的原理利用電腦模擬為工具找出一組使產能最佳化的生產條件。研究對象是一家頗具規模的餐盒食品工廠,經過生產資料蒐集並建構模擬模型後,配合電腦模擬執行L64(421)直交表的實驗,並以S/N比作為衡量標準找到菜餚起始生產時間的最佳因子層級組合。研究結果顯示,在不變更生產動線不添購設備或增加人員的情況之下,比廠商原來採行之生產時間組合產量提高7.63%,也較未使用田口最佳化的電腦模擬改善方案之產量高出1.5%。

關鍵詞:電腦模擬、餐盒食品、田口法、S/N比、最佳化、實驗設計

            

                                                    

                                                   Using the Taguchi Paradigm in Simulation Experiment for Optimum Lunch-Box Manufacturing System Design

Jing-Jung Chen and Cheng-an Hsiao

Department of food Science, Tunghai University, Taichung Taiwan, R.O.C.

Date ReceiverApril 25, 2001Date Accepted: May 30, 2001

Abstract

  This study describes the use of Taguchi Paradigm for improving the manufacturing productivity. On theoretical and practical points of view, most recent approaches in this study concern development of the economical theory of decreasing return to scale to support the concept of the second order quality loss function in Taguchi algorithms. The experimental design and simulation model tool is described and its use is illustrated with the optimization productivity of a boxed lunch plant product line.  The experiment target of this study is a large-scale boxed lunch plant. This plant was modeled by using AweSim network simulation language. The performance is measured according to the throughput putt of the plant. As is typically the objective here is the maximization of throughput. The results of system analysis indicated that the bottleneck is the inappropriate start cooking time of five lunch ingredients.  The experiment chosen five lunch ingredients start cooking time as main factors, and four cooking time as different levels of the factors. The L64(421) orthogonal arrays shows that 64 computer simulation runs must be tested. The Signal-noise ratio has been utilized in the criteria of obtaining optimum levels of start cooking time for each lunch ingredient.  The result of the study indicated that the productivity of the lunch plant will be increased largely by just change the lunch ingredients start cooking time. The simulation experiment showed 7.63%increase in the throughout compared to the plant original level and 1.5%increase in the throughput compared to best case by using sensitivity analysis.

Key wordsSimulation, Boxed lunch, Taguchi method Experimental design, S/N ratio, Optimum

 

 


中國大陸上市食品公司營運績效之研究

陳佩綺 黃秋香

東海大學食品科學系

(收件日期:90614日;接受日期:9074日)

摘  要

  本研究根據「中國工業年鑑」六十五家上市食品公司資料、找出影響營運績效的重要因子以迴歸分析探討六大業別基本特性、市場結構、廠商行為的變數與營運績效之間的關係。由於以營收報酬率為應變數的模型,對營運績效的解釋度較低,故以解釋度較高之資產報酬率為應變數的模型來說明。結果發現資產總額、負債比率、地域變數、營收成長率、設備投資額比率、水平整合家數、垂直整合家數對於資產報酬率有顯著的影響。本研究亦以變異數分析探討各業別報酬率的差異,結果顯示資產報酬率較高的業別有非酒精飲料製造業,資產報酬率較低的業別有其他類食品製造業、蔬菜水果加工業、水產品加工業。而營收報酬率較高的業別有非酒精飲料製造業、飲料酒製造業,營收報酬率較低業別的業別有水產品加工業。

關鍵詞:中國大陸、食品業、經營績效、垂直整合、水平整合、非關聯性多角化

 

                                                                                                                                                                      

 

A Study for the Performance of Mainland Listed Food Companies

Pei-Chi Chen and Huang Qiu Xiang

Department of Food Science, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Date ReceivedJune 14, 2001Date AcceptedJuly 4, 2001

Abstract

  This study uses regression analysis to study the relation of business characters, structure, conduct ,and performance among 65 Mainland China listed food companiesThe regression model of return on asset is used to study the market performanceAssets of company, debt ratio, location variableisland or along sea shore, growing rate of return on operation revenue, ratio of equipment investment,degree of horizontal integration and vertical integration are found affecting profit performance significantly. Comparison among category found non-alcohol beverage manufacturing industry has the highest return on asset, The higher degree the food was processed, the higher rate of return will be.

Key words Mainland China, Food Industry, Performance, Vertical Integration, Horizontal Integration, Unrelated Diversification

 

 


國中生對展示設施偏好程度之研究

-以科博館生命科學廳為例-

蔡淑惠* 鍾溫凊* 吳忠宏**

*東海大學景觀學系

**台中師範學院環境教育研究所

(收件日期:90215日;接受日期:90620日)

摘  要

  本研究主要是探討國中生對科博館生命科學廳展示設施之偏好程度,藉由問卷調查的方式,進而瞭解國中生背景資料與展示設施(包括展示單元、展示內容、展示手法)偏好程度間之關係。

  研究結果顯示:在757份有效樣本中,受訪者以北部學生居多(47.7%),且大部份是一年級的學生(75.3%),男女比例約為11,感興趣的領域以自然科學為最高(57.5%),受訪學生對生命科學廳之訊息多來自「同學及師長」(35.3%),對生命科學廳展示設施滿意度極高(98.2%),且重遊意願強(91.3%)。研究結果發現:k 展示單元之偏好程度會因國中生之「性別」、「年級」、「學校區位」不同而有所差異;l 展示內容之偏好程度會因國中生之「性別」、「學校區位」、「感興趣的領域」不同而有所差異;m 展示手法之偏好程度會因國中生之「學校區位」、「感興趣的領域」不同而有所差異。

關鍵詞:博物館、展示設施、偏好程度

 

 

 

A Study on the Preference of Exhibiting Facilities at the Life Science Hall, National Museum of Natural Science: The Viewpoint from Junior High School Students

Shu-Hui Tsai*, Win-Jing Chung* and Homer Chung-Hung Wu**

*Department of Landscape Architecture,Tunghai University

**Graduate Institute of Environmental Education National Taichung Teachers College

Date ReceivedFeb. 15, 2001Date AcceptedJune 20, 2001

Abstract

  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preference of the interpretive exhibit facilities at the Life Science Hall, National Museum of Natural Science from the viewpoint of junior high school students. This paper also investigated the relationship between student's sociodemographic characters and the preference of interpretive exhibiting facilities (exhibit, exhibit contents, and exhibit types) via questionnaires.

  The results showed that there were 757 students were surveyed, 47.7% of the students were from Northern Taiwan, 75.3% were freshman, the gender ratio was 1:1, Natural Science was the most interested subject (57.5%), information about Life Science Hall was mostly from Classmates and Teachers (35.3%), junior high school students were highly satisfied with the interpretive exhibit facilities and want to come back to visit again (98.2% and 91.3%, respectively). The research also indicated that 1. Grade, gender and school location had an association with the preference of exhibit units; 2. School location and subject interested were associated with the preference of exhibit contents and exhibit types; 3. Gender also had an association with the preference of exhibit contents.

Key wordsMuseum, Exhibit Facilities, Preference

 


台灣南部恆春半島的植群集分析與
植被帶區劃之歸屬

賴明洲* 簡慶德** 薛怡珍*** 曾家琳***

* 東海大學景觀學系

** 行政院農委會林業試驗所恆春分所

*** 台灣區域發展研究院生態暨資源保育研究所

(收件日期:90418日;接受日期:90514日)

摘  要

  本文探討台灣南部恆春半島的氣候帶與植被帶分劃上的歸屬與植群型的歸類問題。恆春半島劃歸“熱帶雨林季雨林帶”的南亞帶,此一熱帶植被帶的界線約在恆春港口溪以南(宋永昌,1999),或甚至稍微偏北一點至楓港溪為界。由個別特定的群落生境反應出的極盛相植群所構成的特有植群集包括東半部(以南仁山為代表)有落葉榕類及茄苳等落葉樹分佈的平地帶季雨林;西半部(以里龍山為代表)的山地帶季風常綠闊葉林;以及以棋盤腳與蓮葉桐為優勢的熱帶海岸林,高位珊瑚礁植群和珊瑚礁海岸植群。這些植群型大致表現了恆春半島的熱帶植被屬性。

關鍵詞:植群集分析、植被帶區劃、恆春半島、台灣南部

 

                                            

Biocoenosis Assemblage Analysis and Vegetation Zonation of Hengchun Peninsula, Southern Taiwan

Ming-Jou Lai*, Ching-Te Chien**, I-Chen Hsueh*** and Chia-Lin Tseng***

*Department of Landscape Architecture, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan 407

**Hengchun Branch Office, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Hengchun, Taiwan 946

***Department of Ecology and Resource Conservation, Taiwan Regional Research Institute, Taichung, Taiwan 407

Date ReceivedApril 18, 2001Date AcceptedMay 14, 2001

Abstract

  In the present study, it is intended to define accurately the Hengchun Peninsula in southern Taiwan in terms of both bioclimate and vegetation zonation. The study area is located at the South subzone of “Tropical rain forest and monsoon forest zone”, demarcated by the natural line of Kangkou River, or by Fengkang River. Particular biocoenosis assemblage within this vegetation subzone composed of four different plant communities inhabiting the particular biotopes, viz., tropical monsoon rain forest, monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest, tropical littoral forest (strand forest) and coral-reef vegetation. All plant community types indicate the tropical attributes of this vegetation subzone.

Key words Biocoenosis assemblage analysis, Vegetation zonation, Hengchun Peninsula, Southern Taiwan

 

 


由景觀生態學觀點探討都市公園生物多樣性—以台北市大安森林公園為例

王小璘 涂芳美

東海大學景觀系

(收件日期:90419日;接受日期:90613日)

摘  要

  都市公園是都市環境中最具生態資源的開放空間之一,而生物多樣性是人類賴以永續生存的基礎。本研究藉由文獻整理出影響都市公園生物多樣性的指標因子及評估準則,並透過德爾菲技法與層級分析法的應用,建立指標因子的相對權重與都市公園生物多樣性之評估架構。同時以台北市大安森林公園進行實証研究,以說明評估架構實際運用的方式。研究結果可知:「都市公園生態系統自然涵構」及「人類活動干擾」為評估架構中達成目標的主要層級,而由實証研究得知,大安森林公園已有相當程度的生物多樣性環境達成度。都市公園生物多樣性之評估架構,可做為都市公園規劃設計的參考,以及發展都市生態綠網之檢測與改善建議,從而實踐建構永續生態都市之願景。

關鍵詞:景觀生態、都市公園、生物多樣性、都市生態綠網、評估準則

 

 

 

The Study on Urban Parks Biodiversity via Landscape Ecological Point of ViewA Case Study of Da-An Forest Park in Taipei City

Hsiao-Lin Wang and Fang-Mei Tu

Department of Landscape Architecture, Tunghai University

Date ReceivedApril 19, 2001Date AcceptedJune 13, 2001

Abstract

  Urban parks possess the richest ecological resources in urban open spaces, and biodiversity is the base of sustainable human living. Literatures was reviewed as the basis of this research in order to develop hierarchical indicators and evaluation criteria of biodiversity in urban parks. Delphi Technique and Analytic Hierarchy Process were used to establish relative weights of factors and, furthermore, to propose an assessment framework for urban park biodiversity. Da-An Forest Park was chosen as the site for empirical study to illustrate the way that the assessment framework could be used in real case.  The result obtained the assessment framework with “urban parks natural context for ecological system” and “human activities disturbance” as the major hierarchy, and suggested that Da-An Forest Park had an high completeness of biodiversity in condition. Through this assessment framework, the reference for designing and planning of urban parks could be made. With the examination and the improvement for implementation of urban green eco-network, the prospect of the sustainable eco-city could thus be expected for.

Key words Landscape Ecology, Urban Park, Biodiversity, Urban Green Eco-network, Evaluation Criteria

 


機關間土地經營管理衝突之研究
―以塔塔加地區為例

葉文玉 鍾溫凊

東海大學景觀學系

(收件日期:90215日;接受日期:90724日)

摘  要

  本研究是從質性研究之深度訪談的方式,來瞭解塔塔加地區玉山國家公園管理處與台大實驗林管理處兩機關間的衝突,並進一步探討國家公園與林業機關間衝突管理的模式與解決的方式。

  研究結果發現玉山國家公園與台大實驗林管理處,主要的衝突有土地、經營管理的方式與法規三大類,並從第二階段的問卷調查發現,一、國家公園與林業機關,置於同一部會,能夠解決土地利用問題。二、提出保育、遊客管理的詳細計畫,能夠減少硬體興辦、保育、經營方面的衝突產生。三、兩機關互動能改變原有的主觀印象,減低本位主義。四、藉由衝突處理的模式,能夠降低衝突發生之機率。

關鍵詞:機關、土地經營管理、衝突管理、塔塔加

 

                                                    

A Study on the Conflicts of Agencies Land Management -the Case of the Ta-Ta-Chia Area

Wen-Yu Yeh and Win-Jing Chung

Department of Landscape Architecture, Tunghai University

Date ReceivedFeb. 15, 2001Date AcceptedJuly 24, 2001

Abstract

  The study used in-depth interview of qualitative research method to explore the conflict between Yushan Nation Park Headquarters and Experimental Forest, N. T. U. in the Ta-Ta-Chia area. The investigation attempted to find the model and the solving strategies of conflict management.

  The results showed the major conflict between two agencies from three aspects, which are land use, management methods and laws. The second phase of questionnaire survey showed the solving strategies of land use conflict from following ways: First, integrating National Park and agency of forestry management could solve the problem of land use. The second, suggesting detail programs of conservation and visitor management can decrease the conflicts of conservation and management. The third, through interaction of the two agencies could change the previously subjective image of each other and reduce selfish departmentalism. The last, using the conflict management model could avoid conflicts to occur.

Key wordsAgency, Land Management, Conflict management, Ta-Ta-Chia Area

 

 


樹群天際線對景觀美質影響之研究
-以小葉南洋杉為例

章錦瑜 詹世光

東海大學景觀學系

(收件日期:90418日;接受日期:9067日)

摘  要

  本研究應用景觀美質評估法,採用視覺模擬的方式,以草地、天空、以及小葉南洋杉單一樹種所組成的樹群天際線景觀,來探討其與景觀美質之關係,並建立樹群天際線景觀美質的預測模式,提供植栽設計樹群組配時之參考。

  經由相關分析,發現樹群天際線景觀美質與株高標準差、銳角數目、天空碎片面積比率、以及高大樹木面積比率,此四個因子有關。經由多項式迴歸分析,建立了一個小葉南洋杉樹群天際線景觀美質的預測模式,對小葉南洋杉單一樹種所組成的樹群天際線景觀美質具有頗高之預測能力(R20.738***)。

關鍵詞:景觀美質、樹群天際線、預測模式

 

 

 

The lnfluence of Mass Planting Skyline on Scenic BeautyAraucaria Heterophylla as an Example

Chin-Yu Chang and Shih-Kuang Chan

Dept. of Landscape Architecture, Tunghai University

Date ReceivedApril 18, 2001Date AcceptedJune 7, 2001

Abstract

  This study had discussed the correlation between scenic beauty and mass planting skyline, which make up of the grass, the sky, and Araucaria heterophylla. The scenic beauty estimation method and the way of the visual simulation would be used to establish the predictive model of scenic beauty of mass planting skyline to serve as a guideline for planting design.

  By using correlation analysis, the result had showed that the scenic beauty of the mass planting skyline is related to four factors, which were the standard deviation of trees' height, the numbers of acute angle of skyline, the proportion of the tall tree area to the picture area, and the proportion of the void area to the picture area. And by using polynominal regression analysis, which was composed of the standard deviation of trees' height and the proportion of the tall tree area to the picture area, we had found the predictive model of the scenic beauty of the mass planting skyline. This predictive model was believed to have a high predictive power (adjusted R2.738 ***)

Key wordsScenic beauty, Mass planting skyline, Predictive model