東海學報(農學院)
第四十三卷 ........................九十一年十月


畜 產
◆1.羊乳體細胞數與乳成分之關係--(蔡濱燦、林伯州、周繼發)
◆2.綠頭鴨在換羽期間血液生化值之變化--(陳盈豪、郭銘彰、曾秋隆、施宗雄、王淑音)
◆3.切除尾脂腺對台灣雄土雞血液學性狀之影響--(陳盈豪、曾秋隆)
◆4.高溫抑制3T3-L1脂肪細胞的分化--(陳佳黎、曾信閔、陳珠亮)

食品科技
◆1.梅納反應產物對烹調豬肉餅的抗氧化及抗菌作用--(黃炫慈、蔡正宗、郭俊欽)
◆2.加熱處理對不同比例豬腿與雞腿或火雞腿混合肉之肌D/甲肌D比值之影響--(吳珊儀、郭俊欽)
◆3.牛蒡果糖基轉移的性質--(李根永、陳培蓉、溫銘吉)

食品管理
◆1.台灣物流中心經營效率之評估-資料包絡分析法之應用--(陳衍霖、陳景榮)
◆2.台灣食品企業組織溝通與組織學習之關聯性研究--(王慶富、何子平)

景觀設計
◆1. 遊客對高美濕地堤岸景觀改善手法之偏好--(侯錦雄、歐楊慧貞、增湋茹)
◆2. 以生態規劃法探討惠蓀林場土地利用之適宜性--(張小飛、薛怡珍、馮豐隆、賴明洲)
◆3. 台北市人行道上行道樹對硬體毀損之研究--(章錦瑜、邵偉榕)

 

Tunghai Journal(College of Agriculture)

Volume 43------October 2002

Contents


Animal Science
◆1.The Relationship of Various Somatic Cell Counts with the Milk Composition in Goat Milk--(Bin-Tsan Tsai、Po-Chou Lin and Chi-Fa Chow)
◆2. Studies on Changes of clinical blood biochemistry Values of mallard Ducks During the moulting period--(Yieng-How Chen、 Ming-Jung Kou、Chau-Loong Tsang、Chung-Hsung Shiu and Shu-Yin Wang)
◆3. The Effects of Uropygial Gland Removal on Hematological Parameters of Male Taiwan Country Chicken--(Yieng-How Chen and Chau-Loong Tsang)
◆4. High Temperature Inhibits 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation--(Jai-Li Chen、Hsin-Min Tseng and Chu-Liang Chen)


Food Technology
◆1.Effect of Maillard Reaction Products on Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Activity of Cooked Pork Patties--(Shiuann-Tsyr Hwang and Tsun-Chung Tsai)
◆2.Carnosine/Anserine Ratios in Meat Mixtures from Different Proportions of Pork Ham and Chicken or Turkey Leg Meat Affected by Heat Treatment--(Shan-Yi Wu and Chun-Chin Kuo)
◆3. Properties of Sucrose : Sucrose Fructosyltransferase Prepared from Arctium lappa--(Kenyuon Li、 Pei-Jung Chen and Ming C. Wen)


Food Management
◆1.Efficiency Evaluation of Distribution Centers in Taiwan-An Application of DEA Approach--(Yen-Lin Chen and Jing-Jung Chen)
◆2.A Related Study of Organizational Communication and Organizational Learning under Taiwanese Food Enterprise--(Ching-Fu Wang and Tzyy-Pyng Her)


Landscape Architecture
◆1.Tourists` preference of the way to amend bulwark Landscape of Kao-May wetland--(Jing-Shoun Hou、Hui-Chen Ou-Ynag and Wei-Ju Tzeng)
◆2.A Study on Land-use Suitability of Hui-Sun forest Station in terms of Ecological Planning and Landscape Ecology--(Hsial-Fei Chang、I-Chen Hsueh、Fong-Long Feng and Ming-Jou Lai)
◆3. Study on the Effect of Street Trees on the Damage of Sidewalk in Taipei City--(Chin-Yu Chang and Wei-Jung Shao)


 

羊乳體細胞數與乳成分之關係

蔡濱燦 林伯州 周繼發

東海大學畜產學系

(收件日期91年2月22日;接受日期91年5月13日)

摘 要

  為了解羊乳體細胞數與乳汁品質的關係,本研究自台中市西屯區之益健乳羊牧場及福隆鮮羊乳場(共飼乳羊約600頭)採取乳樣。自民國88年11月至90年5月每隔週自兩家乳羊場各採兩次總生羊乳作為樣品,並分析其體細胞數、脂肪率、乳糖含量、乳無脂固形分、乳固形分及含氮化合物。試驗結果發現,如將羊總乳體細胞數分為小於50、50-100、100-150、150-200及200 萬/mL以上等五個區間時,則呈現一常態自然分布現象,其中以分布在100-150萬/mL區間內之樣品數(36.25%)最多。收乳季節區分對總乳體細胞數影響並不顯著。就總乳成分而言,除乳無脂固形分與體細胞數之相關不顯著外,乳糖含量於體細胞數大於200萬/mL時最低,脂肪與乳固形分於150-200萬/mL時最低,而蛋白質於大於200萬/mL時最高,其中酪蛋白態氮於低於100萬/mL最高,而可溶性蛋白態氮與蛋白`-蛋白@於大於200萬/mL時呈現最高( P < 0.05 )。綜合上述,如針對羊乳之熱加工而言,當體細胞數高於200萬/mL以上時,對熱敏感而易生沉澱與褐化之可溶性氮、蛋白`-蛋白@之含量顯著增加,因此羊乳體細胞數在150萬/mL以內之生乳較能維持其加工品質。
關鍵詞:羊乳、體細胞數、乳成分

 

 

 

The Relationship of Various Somatic Cell Counts with the Milk Composition in Goat Milk

 

Bin-Tsan Tsai Po-Chou Lin and Chi-Fa Chow

Dept. of Animal Science, Tunghai University

Date Received : February 22, 2002 ; Date Accepted : May 13,2002

Abstract

  The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between goat milk quality and somatic cell counts (SCC). The milk samples were collected directly from Yi-Chang and Fu-Long goat farm from Nov. 1999 to May 2001. The various samples were taken twice in 14 days and determined the contents of milk fat, protein, lactose, total solids and solids-not-fat by infrared milk analyzer. Kjeldahl method was also used to examine the contents of nitrogen compounds. In this study, we divided the SCC of goat milk into five levels, <50, 50-100, 100-150, 150-200 and >200×104 cells /mL, respectively. The result showed that 36.25% of samples was in the group of 100-150×104 cells /mL. There was no significant difference for SCC between warm season (Mar.-Aug.) and cool season (Sep.-Feb.) milk. Among the milk composition, the relationship between solid- not-fat and SCC was no significant difference. Lactose content was lowest in SCC over 200×104 cells /mL, fat and total solids contents were lowest in SCC of 150-200×104 cells/mL, but protein content were highest in SCC over 200×104 cells /mL. Among nitrogen compounds, the casein nitrogen content was highest in SCC under 100×104 cells/mL, but soluble nitrogen and protesose-peptone contents were highest in SCC over 200×104 cells /mL( P < 0.05 ). In sum, the contents of soluble nitrogen and protesose-peptone increased dramastically when SCC got up to > 200×104 cells /mL. Therefore, we suggested that the SCC under 150×104 cells /mL was better for processing of goat milk.
Key Words: Goat milk, Somatic cell counts , Milk composition.


綠頭鴨在換羽期間血液生化值之變化

陳盈豪* 郭銘彰** 曾秋隆**施宗雄* 王淑音***

*東海大學畜產學系
**國立中興大學獸醫學系
***中國文化大學畜產學系
(收件日期:91年4月15日;接受日期:91年5月1日)

摘 要

本試驗之目的係建立綠頭鴨在換羽期間之正常成分之變化,並比較性別間之差異。綠頭鴨共40隻(雄25隻,母15隻),在5月至10月之換羽期間採集血液樣品,以分析其臨床血液生化值。試驗結果顯示,雄及雌綠頭鴨之血清丙胺酸轉胺?活性為22.40-60.29 u/L;血清γ-麩胺醯轉換?活性為2.82-5.41 u/L,血清鹼性磷酸?活性為46.28-337.6 u/L;血清總蛋白質濃度為4.36-6.02 g/dL;血清白蛋白濃度為1.61-2.27 g/dL;血清天冬胺酸轉胺?活性為39.88-77.40 u/L;血清乳酸脫氫?活性為628.00-1184.45 u/L;肌酸激?活性為430.40-1094 u/L;血糖濃度為146.90-255.13 mg/dL;血清尿素氮濃度為1.13-2.63 mg/dL;血清肌酸酐濃度為0.22-0.43 mg/dL;血清尿酸濃度為5.26-12.61 mg/dL;血清總膽固醇濃度為171.25-316.08 mg/dL;血清三酸甘油酯濃度為73.82-663.0 mg/dL;血清總膽紅素量為0.02-0.23 mg/dL;血清白蛋白/球蛋白比值為0.51-0.74。綠頭鴨在非產蛋期及換羽完成後有較高之血清葡萄糖濃度,母綠頭鴨在產蛋期有較高的血清三酸甘油酯濃度、鹼性磷酸?活性及較低之總膽固醇濃度(P<0.05)。母綠頭鴨之平均血清鹼性磷酸?活性、總蛋白質、三酸甘油酯、白蛋白、血清尿素氮與肌酸酐等濃度顯著高於雄鴨(P <0.05),而雄鴨之平均血清γ-麩胺醯轉換?活性、總膽固醇與血糖等濃度濃度,則顯著高於母鴨(P<0.05)。
關鍵語:綠頭鴨、血液生化值、換羽

 

 

Studies on Changes of clinical blood biochemistry Values of mallard Ducks During the moulting period


Yieng-How Chen*, Ming-Jung Kou**, Chau-Loong Tsang** , Chung-Hsung Shiu* and Shu-Yin Wang***

* Department of Animal Science, Tunghai University , Taichang
**Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichang
*** Department of Animal Science, Chinese Culture University

(Date Received:April 15, 2002;Date Accepted:May 1, 2002)

Abstract

The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the change of clinical biochemistry values of male and female mallard ducks during the moulting period. Forty mallards (25 males, 15 females) were used in this experiment and blood samples were collected from May to October, 1998. Results of serum parameters were as following: alanine aminotransferase activity 22.40-60.29 u/L;γ-glutamyltransferase activity 2.82-5.41 u/L,alkaline phosphatase activity 46.28-337.6 u/L;total protein 4.36-6.02 g/dL;albumin 1.61-2.27 g/dL;aspartate aminotransferase activity 39.88-77.40 u/L;lactate dehydrogenase activity 628.00-1184.45 mg/dL;creatine kinase 430.40-1094 u/L;glucose 146.90-255.13 mg/dL;blood urea nitrogen 1.13-2.63 mg/dL;creatinine 0.22-0.43 mg/d L;urea acid 5.26-12.61 mg/dL;total cholesterol 171.25-316.08 mg/dL;triglyceride 73.82-663.0 mg/dL;total billirubin 0.02-0.23 mg/dL;albumin/globulin 0.51-0.74, respectively. The concentration of serum glucose of mallards at non-laying and after moulting period were higher than those of the other period. Overall sera mean activities or concentrations of alkaline phosphatase activity, total protein, triglyceride, albumin, and creatinine of female ducks were higher than those of drakes, but the glutamyltransferase activity, total cholesterol, and glucose concentrations of female ducks were lower than those of drakes(P<0.05).
Key words: mallard ducks, clinical blood biochemistry values, moulting .


切除尾脂腺對台灣雄土雞血液學性狀之影響

陳盈豪* 曾秋隆**

*東海大學畜產學系
**國立中興大學獸醫學系

(收件日期:91年5 月31 日;接受日期:91年6 月17 日)

摘 要

本試驗之目的係在探討切除尾脂腺對台灣雄土雞血液學性狀之影響。選取120隻8週齡且體重相近之小公雞,逢機分配假手術(SHAM)、切除左尾脂腺(LUGR)、切除右尾脂腺(RUGR)與切除左右尾脂腺(BUGR)等4個處理組。試驗期為8週,飼料與水任食。在12與16週齡採血分析血液學性狀。試驗結果顯示:雄土雞在8-12週齡血液中紅血球總數、血紅素濃度、血容比值、平均紅血球容積、平均紅血球血紅素濃度與平均紅血球血紅素量,各處理組間無顯著差異(P>0.05)。在16週齡時BUGR組的平均紅血球血紅素濃度與平均紅血球血紅素量最低(P<0.05)。
關鍵詞:尾脂腺、血液學性狀、台灣土雞

 


The Effects of Uropygial Gland Removal on Hematological Parameters of Male Taiwan Country Chicken

Yieng-How Chen*, Chau-Loong Tsang **

* Depart. of Animal Science, Tunghai University
** Depart. of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University

(Date Received:31, May , 2002 ; Date Accepted:17, June, 2002)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of uropygial gland removal on hematological parameter in male Taiwan Country chicken. One hundred and twenty 8-wks-old cockerels with similar body weight were randomly were divided into four treatments: sham(SHAM), left uropygial gland removal(LUGR), right uropygial gland removal(RUGR)and both side uropygial gland removal(BUGR). Each treatment contains 15 birds and the experiment duplicated. Experiment lasted for 8 weeks, water and feed were ad libitum. Body weights, feed efficiency were measured every two weeks. At 12 and 16 wks of age, blood samples were analyzed for hematological parameter. The results of experiment indicated that there were no significant differences in red blood cell(RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume(PCV), mean corpuscular volume(MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration(MCHC)and mean corpuscular hemoglobin(MCH)among treatments (P>0.05) at 12 wks of age. The cockerels in BUGR had the lowest MCH and MCHC values at 16 wks of age (P<0.05).
Key words: uropygial gland, hematological parameters, Taiwan Country
chicken.

 

高溫抑制3T3-L1脂肪細胞的分化

陳佳黎 曾信閔 陳珠亮

東海大學畜產學系

(收件日期91年6月3日;接受日期91年7月16日)

摘 要

豬隻生長、繁殖、及行為在夏季高溫期會明顯下降。本試驗旨在探討高溫與脂肪細胞分化程度之關係。3T3-L1前脂肪細胞在高溫(41℃)處理後以脂質染色固定,發現脂肪細胞油滴堆積減少。將3T3-L1脂肪細胞培養在41℃,Hsp70表現量較在37℃培養者表現量高。使用西方點漬法分析脂肪細胞分化的標幟基因C/EBPα和PPARγ,發現其表現量亦因高溫而下降。以上結果顯示,高溫會抑制脂肪細胞的分化。
關鍵詞:溫度、脂肪細胞、熱緊迫蛋白質

 

 

High Temperature Inhibits 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation

Jai-Li Chen, Hsin-Min Tseng and Chu-Liang Chen

Department of Animal Science, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan

(Date Received: June 03, 2002; Date Accepted: July 16, 2002)

Abstract

Previously reports described that the growth, reproduction and behavior of swine appeared to be affected during high-temperature spells during summer in the subtropical and tropical areas. Is metabolism of the animals affected by the temperature, especially high temperatures, of the environment? The goal of our research was to investigate whether any correlations exist between adipocyte differentiation and high temperature. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated at high temperature (41℃), the levels of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) are elevated, comparing to cells kept at 37℃. The accumulation of fat-droplets and the amounts of adipocyte differentiation marker, C/EBPα, and PPARγ proteins, are decreased by the high temperature treatment. Taken together, adipocyte differentiation appears to be suppressed at high temperature.
Key Words︰High temperature, Adipocyte, Heat shock protein

 

 

梅納反應產物對烹調豬肉餅的抗氧化及抗菌作用

黃炫慈 蔡正宗 郭俊欽

東海大學食品科學系

(收件日期:91年4月19日;接受日期:91年5月6日)

摘 要

梅納反應產物 (Maillard reaction products,MRPs)可抑制氧化酸敗的發生。本研究製備三種不同的MRPs,分別為:(a)色胺酸-木糖(trp-xyl),(b)卵白蛋白水解物-葡萄糖(EA-glc),(c)大豆分離蛋白水解物-木糖(SP-
xyl)。以AOA法測試其抗氧化活性,發現trp-xyl的抗氧化活性最好,其AOA值高達1.003,其次為EA-glc及SP-xyl,其AOA值分別為0.945及0.874。將此三種MRPs運用於豬肉餅中,經烹調及儲藏,測試其回溫味之抑制作用。以TBA測試,結果顯示trp-xyl組之TBA值最低,即抗氧化活性最佳,其次為SP-xyl及EA-glc。對總菌數及冷溫菌並無抑制作用。在評估風味及接受性方面,經官能評估結果以SP-xyl組的接受性最高。
關鍵字:梅納反應產物、抗氧化性、豬肉餅

 

 

Effect of Maillard Reaction Products on Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Activity of Cooked Pork Patties


Shiuann-Tsyr Hwang and Tsun-Chung Tsai

Department of Food Science, Tunghai university,Taiching, Taiwan, R. O. C.

(Date Received: April 19,2002;Date Accepted: May 6,2002)

ASTRATE

Maillard reaction products(MRPs) are effective in inhibiting the development of oxidative rancidity. Three MRPs were prepared and their antioxidative were tested activity in linoleic acid model system. The MRPs were trptophan-xylose, egg albumin hydrolysate-glucose and isolated soy protein hydrolysate-xylose. AOA value of those PRPs were 1.003, 0.945 and 0.874 , respectively, in linoleic acid model system. These MRPs were added to pork patties prior to cooking except for the control, which contained only distilled water. Cooked patties were stored at 4℃ in refrigerator and sampled at various storage period for evaluation of oxidation.The development of oxidative rancidity was measured by TBA test .The TBA of pork patties with tryptophan-xylose MRPs added was lowest among treatments and control. The effect of MRPs addition on the microbial growth also examined. Antibacterial no effect in the total plate count and psychrotrophic bacterial count was found for MRPs addition. Sensory evaluation of cooked patties showed that the acceptability of product with isolated soy protein-xylose MRPs addition was the best.
Key Words: MRPs, Antioxidation, Pork patty

 

 

加熱處理對不同比例豬腿與雞腿或火雞腿混合肉之肌D/甲肌D比值之影響

吳珊儀 郭俊欽

東海大學食品科學系

(收件日期: 91年4月19日;接受日期: 91年8月2日)

摘 要

本試驗之主要目的乃探討加熱處理對豬腿肉、雞腿肉、火雞腿肉及不同比例之豬腿與雞腿或火雞腿混合肉之肌D/甲肌D比值之影響。生鮮豬腿肉之肌D/甲肌D比值(13.02)高於雞腿肉(0.29)或火雞腿肉(0.20)。生鮮豬腿與雞腿或火雞腿混合肉之肌D/甲肌D比值隨雞腿肉或火雞腿肉添加比例之增加而減少。加熱處理會降低肉品之肌D與甲肌D濃度,並使豬腿肉之肌D/甲肌D比值 (36.7)增加,雞腿肉(0.21)或火雞腿肉之肌D/甲肌D比值(0.13)降低。加熱過不同比例豬腿 (25-75﹪)與雞腿或火雞腿混合肉之肌D/甲肌D比值均較生鮮混合者為高。
關鍵詞:肌D, 甲肌D, 豬腿肉, 雞腿肉, 火雞腿肉, 加熱處理

 

 

牛蒡果糖基轉移?的性質

李根永 陳培蓉 溫銘?*

東海大學食品科學系

摘 要

牛蒡均質後可測得蔗糖果糖基轉移?活性,加入20 ~ 60%飽和度的硫酸銨於粗酵素液中,可將大部份的果糖基轉移?沉澱,沉澱酵素再用Sephadex G-75膠體層析,結果可得部份純化酵素,但是活性損失很多,因而無法進一步的純化。這種酵素在長期儲存牛蒡中的穩定性欠佳,經一年儲藏的牛蒡酵素活性僅殘留二分之一。使用部份純化酵素測得此果糖轉移?的最適反應pH值約為6.0;最適溫度約為 25 ℃;蔗糖基質的Km是 0.26 M。官能基修飾分子PMSF (phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride) 和 EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) 對果糖基轉移?的活性均有促進效果,IA (iodoacetic acid) 則有抑制作用。金屬離子Hg2+有強烈的抑制作用, Fe2+、Cu2+、Ca2+、K+ 、及Na+ 亦會抑制酵素的活性,但Zn2+ 和 Mg2+在 1 mM 時會有促進果糖轉移?的活性, 5mM 時即有抑制作用。
關鍵詞:牛蒡、果糖基轉移?、蔗糖。

 

 

Properties of Sucrose : Sucrose Fructosyltransferase Prepared from Arctium lappa


Kenyuon Li, Pei-Jung Chen, and Ming C. Wen*

Dept. of Food Science, Tunghai University

(Date Received:April 30,2002;Date Accepted: June 25,2002)

Abstract

The activity of sucrose : sucrose fructosyltransferase was detectable in a homogenized sample of
Arctium lappa. A large part of this enzyme in the crude extraction of burdocks was salting out at 20-60% saturation of (NH4)2SO4. The enzyme precipitate was suspended and applied onto a Sephadex G-75 chromatograph column to partially purify the fructosyltransferase.
However, the activity of this enzyme was reduced during the chromatograph procedure since
the enzyme was unstable. The activity of the fructosyltransferase in one-year stored burdock was only half left. The optimum pH for enzyme reaction is about 6.0; the optimum temperature for reaction is 25℃; the Km of sucrose is 0.26 M. Chemical functional modifiers, PMSF (phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride) and EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), are capable to enhance the enzyme activity, but IA (iodoacetic acid) inhibits the enzyme obviously. Hg2+ is a strong inhibitor, and Fe2+、Cu2+、Ca2+、K+ 、and Na+ inhibit the enzyme moderately. Zn2+ and Mg2+ enhance the enzyme activity at the concentrations of 1mM but show slight inhibition at higher concentration.
Key Words: burdock, fructosyltransferase, sucrose.


台灣物流中心經營效率之評估
-資料包絡分析法之應用


陳衍霖* 陳景榮*

東海大學食品科學系

(收件日期:91年4月24日;接受日期:91年5月7日)

摘 要

本研究利用DEA方法探討國內26家物流中心在2000年的相對經營效率,並提供無效率物流中心改善的方向及幅度。在投入及產出項的選擇上,選擇四個投入項-總倉儲面積、機器設備成本、運輸成本、工作時數以及二個產出項-出貨量與營業額成長率,繼而使用DEAP軟體來計算各物流中心之相對效率。由分析結果得知,在評估的樣本中由製造商及零售商所成立之物流中心較具有整體效率,而有超過半數的業者在資源的配置上使用得宜,但是由獨資或其他背景所成立之業者表現相對較差,此外,無效率業者在生產規模上皆處於不適狀態,必須加以擴大或縮小,最後則利用差額變數分析提供給無效率業者在資源配置上之具體建議。
關鍵詞:物流中心、效率、資料包絡分析法、DEAP

 

Efficiency Evaluation of Distribution Centers in Taiwan
-An Application of DEA Approach

Yen-Lin Chen* , Jing-Jung Chen*
Department of Food Science,Tunghai University Taichung Taiwan
(Date Received:April 24,2002;Date Accepted May 7,2002)
Abstract
Under current conditions of a saturated market and fierce competition, Distribution Centers should use more of their resources to promote efficiency in order to achieve their goals. The major purpose of efficiency evaluation is to diagnose the managed situation and provide further suggestions. Data Envelopment Analysis(DEA) is a nonparametric approach that incorporates multiple inputs and outputs, and thus the results are more objective than other methods of efficiency evaluation. This study used the DEA method to evaluate the relative efficiencies of the 26 Distribution Centers in Taiwan using data from the year 2000, and gives advice to inefficient Distribution Centers on how to improve their performance. Efficiency scores were determined using four inputs-area of storehouse, cost of equipment, cost of transport, hours of labor-and two outputs: amount of good, and rate of turnover growth. The computer program used was DEAP. The research showed that among the 26 Distribution Centers evaluated, M.D.C and Re.D.C were considered relatively aggregate efficient. On the aspect of pure technical efficiency, more than half of those observed were considered efficient, but the performance of those Distribution Centers with exclusive ventures etc. were not as good. Additionally, inefficient Distribution Centers were found to lie on the two extreme ends of the spectrum, in that they should either expand or reduce their company size. Finally, we provide specific suggestions to inefficient Distribution Centers via slack variable analysis.
Key Words: DEA, DEAP, distribution center, efficiency, slack variable analysis

 

台灣食品企業組織溝通與組織學習之關聯性研究


王慶富* 何子平**

* 東海大學農學院食品科學系兼任教授

**國立成功大學醫學院分子醫學研究所研究助理

(收件日期︰91年 4 月 9 日 ; 接受日期︰91年 5 月 12 日)

摘 要

本研究主要在探討台灣食品企業組織溝通與組織學習之關聯性,在過去的研研究中,組織溝通關係到組織的工作績效與生產力,組織學習,是一個企業能否擺脫過去經營上的包袱,邁向沒有成長上限的學習型組織之關鍵。透過全國性問卷調查的方式進行,採分層比例取樣法,共發出問卷400份,有效率是72%。研究方法採用信度、敘述統計、變異數、皮爾積差相關分析及迴歸等分析方法,其主要結果為 (1)不同員工組織特性在組織溝通或學習上均有顯著性差異,(2)不同組織特徵在組織溝通或學習上均有顯著性差異,(3)組織溝通與組織學習間具有顯著相關性。本研究亦發現,團隊學習是對組織最有利的溝通與學習策略。台灣食品企業六成的員工有網路通訊之溝通行為,電腦普及率高達九成,宜善加利用塑成知識型企業。
關鍵詞: 食品企業、組織溝通、組織學習、研究創新、科技管理

 

 

 

A Related Study of Organizational Communication and Organizational Learning under Taiwanese Food Enterprise

Ching-Fu Wang* and Tzyy-Pyng Her**

* Part-time Professor, Dept. of Food Science, College of Agriculture, Tunghai University.

** Research Assistant, Institute of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University.

(Date Received:April,9 2002;Date Accepted:May 12,2002)

Abstract

This study is to probe into the relationship between organizational communi-
cating and organizational learning under Taiwanese food enterprise. The data obtain-
ed through nation-wide questionnaire surveys. Gather the raw data by stratified pro-
portional cluster sampling based on total of 400 copies and with 72% is in validity.
The statistical methods are reliability test, descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and regression analysis. The major findings are as follows: (i) The organizational characteristics of different employees show significant difference in organizational communication and in organizational learning. (ii) Different organizational characteristics show significant difference in organizational communication and in organi zational learning. (iii) There is significant correlation between organizational communicating and organizational learning. Conclusions indicate team learning is the best strategy for organizational communicating and learning. Over 60% of employees could be communicating through networks and over 90% have themselves computer equipment.It is the useful information in developing the knowledge-based enterprise.
Key Words: Food enterprise, Organizational communication, Organizational
learning, Research innovation, Technology management.

台北市人行道上行道樹對硬體毀損之研究

章錦瑜 邵偉榕

東海大學景觀學系

(收件日期:91年4月30日;接受日期:91年6月3日)

摘 要

本研究針對臺北市人行道上栽種的10種常見之行道樹、共計2079株,進行實地調查。目的在瞭解這些樹種根系的生長特色,以及對人行道硬體(包括植穴邊框、鋪面與路緣石)毀損的情形,探討導致根害的可能因素,以及各行道樹之不同樹高、胸徑與植穴面積對硬體毀損率之相關性。本研究調查了10種行道樹,發現其中9種:樟樹(Cinnamomum camphora)、榕樹(Ficus microcarpa )、白千層(Melaleuca leucadendra)、茄苳(Bischofia javanica)、木棉(Bombax ceiba)、楓香(Liquidambar formosana)、芒果(Mangifera indica)、刺桐(Erythrina variegata var. orientalis)與盾柱木(Peltophorum pterocarpum),都會對人行道之硬體造成毀損,僅蒲葵(Livistona chinensis)未見毀損。不同樹種造成之毀損率不同,且對植穴邊框、鋪面與路緣石的毀損傾向也有所差異。至於行道樹的樹高,與其對硬體之毀損,只有樟樹、白千層與木棉,呈顯著之正相關。但胸徑大小與人行道硬體的毀損程度,各樹種均呈顯著之正相關。榕樹、茄苳與盾柱木,當植穴面積擴大後,硬體的毀損率有明顯下降的現象。至於日後都市人行道之狹窄植穴選擇行道樹方面,應注意該樹種的根系形態與特性,避免種植淺根性、幹基會膨大、地表面浮突根多,以及會形成板根之喬木,至於短時間內胸徑會迅速增粗的行道樹,亦應避免栽種。若有可能則儘量增加植穴的面積,將明顯降低樹木根系對硬體之毀損。
關鍵詞:行道樹、人行道、硬體

 

 

Study on the Effect of Street Trees on the Damage of Sidewalk in Taipei City.


Chin-Yu Chang Wei-Jung Shao

Dept. of Landscape Architecture, Tunghai University

(Date Received:April 30, 2002;Date Accepted:June 3,2002)

Abstract

This study tried to understand the root damage of street trees in urban area and what were the reasons that caused the damage of tree root. We investigated 10 species, totally 2079 street trees in Taipei city. It was the objective of this study to investigate the differences of root damage by different street tree species, tree height, DBH and area of the plant’s pit. There were 9 species(Cinnamomum camphora, Ficus microcarpa, Melaleuca leucadendra, Bischofia javanica, Bombax ceiba, Liquidambar formosana, Mangifera indica, Erythrina variegata var. orientalis, Peltophorum pterocarpum) of the 10 investigated street trees damaged the hardscape, except Livistona chinensis. There were significant differences in the proportions of trees of different species causing hardscape damage. There were only Cinnamomum camphora, Melaleuca leucadendra and Bombax ceiba, the level of root damage were positive correlation to the height of the trees. The level of root damage of all the damaged trees were positive correlation to DBH of the damaged trees. The larger the plant’s pit, the lower level of pavement damage. In the future, we choose the street trees depend on the root type of the trees . It appears the trees that slowly grown trees with a deeper and roots are good for the small plant’s pit in the city. If it’s possible, we should enlarge the plant’s pit to eliminate the damage of hardscape by roots.
Keywords:street tree, sidewalk, hardscape